Before writing anything else I would like to share my thoughts on the upcoming WIPO Diplomatic Conference that will focus on an "International Instrument/Treaty on Limitations and Exceptions for Visually Impaired Persons/Persons with Print Disabilities" (I will refer to it here simply as "The Treaty". As the title in the second article in this issue, Countdown to Marrakesh suggests, the time for decision making will arrive in June. I have been reporting on the efforts to make this proposed Treaty a reality and the outcomes of the meetings for four or five years, and I am anxious about the outcome of the upcoming Diplomatic Conference.
Earlier this week Dan Pescod who is the lead for the World Blind Union European campaign for the Treaty wrote about the situation and efforts in Europe in the blog post WIPO accessible book treaty - Do EU negotiators know what blind people need better than EBU does?. He describes the two primary issues that are yet to be agreed on. Dan ends the article with "It is not enough for the [EU] Commission and Member States to tell us they want a simple and effective treaty that works for us. They have to negotiate for such a thing, and time is running out for them to do so."
Much that has been written recently about the Treaty is far from positive regarding what remains to be negotiated. Let's do everything we can to ensure the Treaty is right and that it is passed. There may never be another opportunity like this. If there is a petition in your country in support of the Treaty, please sign it. If there is not, you may wish to sign the NFB petition: The Petition Supporting WIPO Treaty for the Blind and Print Disabled. We will not know the outcome of the WIPO Diplomatic Conference until the end of June.
The first article in this issue UNICEF's Annual "State of the World's Children" Report: in Accessible Formats is extremely positive and encouraging. A major publication has been released simultaneously in mainstream and accessible formats. It is of course fitting that in the year when the theme of the report is children with disabilities that this UNICEF report is made available in accessible formats. However, once the move to fully accessible publications has been taken, it is impossible to go back. UNICEF has started a trend that other organizations and governments need to follow, for the sake of not only children with disabilities, but for everyone regardless of ability or age.
In addition to the two articles I've mentioned above, there are five other articles in this issue covering a wide range of topics (they are not long).
On June 2, ONCE, the Spanish National Organisation of the Blind, is officially celebrating its 75th anniversary. ONCE is one of the original six Members of the DAISY Consortium. Congratulations to the organization and to each and every person involved in providing ONCE's services.
There are now 21 sets of slides DAISY Consortium's SlideShare page. They have been viewed a total of 30,166 times! The three most frequently viewed slide sets are:
Inclusive Publishing in the Educational Environment,
EPUB 3 State of the Art and Accessibility, and
DAISY Reading Apps for Mobile Devices.
If you haven't yet viewed any of our sets of slides, please check them out – you may find them to be helpful. Note: below each slide there is a button for "More…". When this is selected several options will display, including "Accessibility/View text version". When you select "View text version" the text of the slides which is accessible will display immediately below.
In the article The Full Impact of Impact Sourcing published by the Huffington Post, Betsy Beaumon (VP and General Manager, Global Literacy at Benetech) explains why and how Benetech uses impact sourcing to benefit not only its more than a quarter of a million users in 40 countries, but also benefit people in need through partners such as Digital Divide Data (DDD) in Laos. Beaumon concludes the article with: "Don't just look at what you do to deliver your mission; look at how you do it." I found this to be an extremely interesting and informative article and hope that you will take a minute to learn more about how Benetech provides its Bookshare services and at the same time benefits people in need.
The story this month is about a young man who has travelled to more than 80 countries – by himself. Tony Giles is blind and without hear aids is 80% deaf. When I first heard about Tony and his travels I knew his story was something special. Thank you Tony!
Thanks to everyone who has written to me with ideas, articles and suggestions for this issue of the DAISY Planet. Your input helps me keep our community up to date on what is going on in the world of information, access and publishing. DAISY stories provide insight into the lives of people we might not otherwise have ever come to know. You can reach me by email (you will have my address if you receive the DAISY Planet email notice) or you can use the DAISY Contact Us Form (DAISY Planet Newsletter Category).
• The European Booksellers Federation and International Booksellers Federation have jointly published the study On the Interoperability of eBook Formats. A brief announcement about the study was posted May 16, with a link for downloading the document. In the Executive Summary it states: "To sum up, there is no technical or functional reason not to use and establish EPUB 3 as an/the interoperable (open) ebook format standard." Issues such as the current lack of availability of reader applications which can display all EPUB 3 features and DRM are examined.
• EPUB for archival preservation: an update posted on the Open Planets Foundation website provides a comprehensive update to the original report published by the National Library of the Netherlands (KB). This blog post provides an update to the findings in that report, addressing these topics in particular: Use of EPUB in scholarly publishing, Adoption and use of EPUB 3, EPUB 3 reader support, and, Support of EPUB by characterisation tools. The main developments in each of these areas are briefly summarized. The post closes with discussion and conclusions followed by a number of useful links.
• Pearson Higher Education Commits to 100% Accessible Math by 2014 is written by Steve Noble (a guest author), and posted on the Design Science website. Steve Noble, who is an Accessibility Research Consultant, is a nationally recognized researcher with a core focus in mathematics accessibility and assistive technology. In the article Noble describes several things which educators can do to get more accessible math textbooks offered by more publishers. (Design Science is a Friend of the DAISY Consortium.)
• Cristina Mussinelli, LIA project coordinator, member of the Italian Publishers Association, and also of the IDPF Board of Directors was featured in the May 13 issue of DAISY Tech Watch: "We do hope that the experience of the LIA project will spur a true and widespread cultural change in the way accessibility is considered all over the digital publishing value chain. Moreover, we hope that it will be used as a good practical example on how to create synergies and collaborations between different participants involved." Ms. Mussinelli will be one of the speakers at the Future Publishing and Accessibility Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 13-14. (Registration closes June 4.)
"The State of the World's Children" is UNICEF's flagship publication. It has been published each year, beginning in 1996. The subject of the 2013 report is "Children with Disabilities".
"The report lays out how societies can include children with disabilities because when they play a full part in society, everyone benefits. For instance, inclusive education broadens the horizons of all children even as it presents opportunities for children with disabilities to fulfil their ambitions." [UNICEF press release: "See the child – before the disability", May 30, 2013]
For the first time since UNICEF began publishing this report, each year with a different theme, and each year in PDF, the full report has been made available in multiple accessible formats:
A detailed guide with information about using each of the accessible formats has also been provided. Prashant Verma, a Consultant with the DAISY Consortium, provided the necessary information and helped to make this report available in DAISY, EPUB 3, BRF and HTML formats. He also provided advice on improving the accessibility of the download page. The PDF to XML and to EPUB conversion was externally, however much of the work has been completed using DAISY software tools such as the DAISY Pipeline and Tobi. UNICEF has also created a "simplified language" version of the report and has provided sign language videos.
The WIPO Diplomatic Conference to conclude a Treaty to facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities is less than three weeks away. Many, many people have given an incredible amount of time and energy to make this happen, and we are now in the 'home stretch' – the countdown has begun.
The Draft Text of an International Instrument/Treaty on Limitations and Exceptions for Visually Impaired Persons/Persons with Print Disabilities, published April 20, is the document that will be at the heart of the Diplomatic Conference. The Draft Agenda for the Conference which will take place in Marrakech from June 17 to 28 looks relatively uncomplicated, with agenda item 13 being "Adoption of the Treaty".
Other than the fact that there are still many points that have not been agreed to and are therefore yet to be finalized, everything seems to be in reasonable order. However there have been a number of articles posted this month about the proposed Treaty that give rise to concern over the possible outcome (they are all worth reading). In order of publication/posting date…
In the YouTube video Betsy Beaumon Testifies Before US Senate Committee on Health, Education, Pensions & Labor Ms. Beaumon focuses on legislation, funding and partnerships. She expresses concern about the WIPO proposed 'Treaty for the Blind', saying: "there have been some serious issues reintroduced that really would weaken the Treaty…making it almost unimplementable".
There is a petition on the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) website in the USA: The Petition Supporting WIPO Treaty for the Blind and Print Disabled. It fully accessible and easy to complete. The issues and the need are clearly laid out above the form:
"We support this proposed treaty because we are concerned about the worldwide book famine afflicting the blind and print disabled, which denies them access to the overwhelming majority of published works…the blind and print disabled of our nation and of the world lack access to information, which in turn leads to the lack of education, employment, and full participation in society. The promulgation of legally binding international norms promoting the production and sharing of works in accessible formats, such as Braille and DAISY audio or text, would dramatically alter this state of affairs, and WIPO is to be commended for its work to produce this treaty.
We are concerned, however, that the proposed treaty has been freighted with provisions designed to expand or contract existing copyright obligations, shifting the focus away from the treaty's proper goals…We urge WIPO to focus its efforts on these goals and produce a simple, straightforward, and practicable treaty that promotes access to published works for blind and print-disabled readers the world over, while making clear that existing international copyright obligations are not altered or derogated.…"
There is also another petition in the US, Side with the blind over obstructionist companies to secure a Treaty for the Blind that makes books accessible globally, however a whitehouse.gov account is required to sign.
All of the documents for the Diplomatic Conference are on the WIPO website; all are available in six languages and in Word and PDF format.
This treaty has the potential to improve the lives of millions of people around the world, but only if it supports the original goal of the proposal and can be implemented by organizations both large and small everywhere. And, only if it is passed and ratified.
This Digital Publishing Forum took place in London on May 1 at University College London (UCL), Department of Information Studies. The three featured speakers for this event, entitled "Raising Standards with EPUB 3", were Daniel Weck (software developer with the DAISY Consortium), Graham Bell (Chief Data Architect, EDItEUR), and KoKo Ekong, eBook Production & Design Specialist, Random House UK). The event was organised by the Publishers Association (PA).
The sessions included a high level overview of EPUB 3 developments, a more detailed exploration of how HTML 5/EPUB 3 features impact accessibility, as well as demonstrations of rich interactive e-books, including Media Overlays (EPUB 3 talking book with pre-recorded human narration). The work done by the DAISY Consortium was mentioned on several occasions, and the audience was interested not only in learning about the latest developments, but also in having a better understanding of the historical path that has led to the EPUB 3 standard and the access to publications that it provides for all readers.
Participants commented about specialised publishing and accessible formats, acknowledging that the wealth of experience in this field would significantly benefit mainstream publishing. A publisher of children's books said that they envision accessibility as an opportunity to differentiate their products in the marketplace, by serving readers with visual disability and those who have dyslexia in addition to their current market of customers.
The Enabling Technologies Framework Guidelines were distributed to all participants.
Daniel reports that the conference was a great opportunity to promote inclusive publishing and to help people realize and understand the real-world solutions and mutual benefits of accessible publishing. Daniel's slideshow is available online in HTML 5 format, or as a download in EPUB 3 format. (Note that the HTML 5 format can be read in modern browsers.)
Thanks go to Daniel Weck for providing the information for this article.
Chakshumathi's second "Eyes Free Science Camp" which spanned ten days in April was a great success. Thirty young high school students who are blind or have low vision attended the camp at the Kanthari International Institute for Social Entrepreneurship in Kerala India. In addition to intense "eyes-free" science and accessible mathematics lessons and lectures, every child was given intense computer training and training in DAISY Digital Talking Book production with Obi, the open source, accessible DAISY production tool.
Only 11 of the 30 students had basic computer proficiency prior to attending the camp. Those 11 students became proficient in editing and independently creating DAISY books over the 10 day period. As a part of the project the students produced two Malayalam audio DAISY books with structure. The youngest camp participant, 12 year old Manav Sujith, converted a Malayalam translation of Leo Tolstoy's short story "How Much Land Does a Man Need" on his own. The young man had learned about the life of Tolstoy during afternoon story-telling sessions in the afternoon.
It took Manav three days to produce the DAISY book from an audio tape, editing the audio to provide structure to the finished DAISY DTB to provide navigation for those who will read the converted book. The DAISY version of Tolstoy's short story produced by Manav has been published by Chakshumathi Charitable Trust. Manav said he had enjoyed this project as when he grows up he wants to become a software engineer.
Chakshumathi Charitable Trust is one of the member organisations of DAISY Forum of India.
Thanks go to Ram Kamal, Director at Chakshumathi Charitable Trust for the suggestion that "Eyes Free Science Camp" and Manav's accomplishment be included in the DAISY Planet, and for the information he provided.
Additional Source: Camp enables youngster to edit DAISY book, The New Indian Express, April 27
A new release of Tobi, the authoring tool for DAISY 3 and EPUB 3 full text and audio books developed by the DAISY Consortium, is soon to be released. Tobi 2.1 is intended for power users with technical expertise.
The main feature of this release is improved Pipeline 2 integration. There are also additional enhancements and bug fixes. It will allow users to convert DAISY 3 content into EPUB 3 content with help of the following Pipeline 2 scripts:
Tobi is now packaged in an MSI installer, enabling users to install the tool on the machines that do not have a consistent connection to the Internet.
Tobi and Pipeline development teams look forward to feedback and bug reports. They have asked specifically for users to try to convert DAISY 3 books to EPUB 3 and let the teams know if any problems are encountered. Your feedback will assist the development team to make the Pipeline conversion process through Tobi more robust and user friendly.
This particular release is for users with technical skills who can help identify more issues. When Tobi 2.1 is available for download in the near future, it will be announced on the Tobi forum.
A great deal has been written about Amazon's recently released Kindle App for iOS. Rather than trying to summarize what has been written, the best way provide the most information seemed to be to compile what is out there and provide links to the various articles and press releases. (Amazon.com is the largest or one of the largest online digital libraries in the world.)
On the first of the month the press release Amazon Bringing New Accessibility Features to Free Kindle Reading Apps was posted on the Amazon website. It opens with:
"Amazon today announced new accessibility features for the Kindle reading app, making it easier than ever for blind and visually impaired customers to navigate their Kindle libraries, read and interact with their books, and more. These new features are available starting today on Kindle for iOS, and accessibility enhancements will be available on additional platforms in the future."
Nine of the new accessibility features are listed as are several feedback comments plus a link to download the app.
Amy Mason, an Access Technology Specialist with the National Federation of the Blind Jernigan Institute, dived right into the new release of the Kindle app: "what's a better way to learn about a free app than to download it, and play?" In her review, Grading Kindle Accessibility on iOS, Amy literally grades the app with a percentage scale, as a teacher would grade a student's paper. She explains the grading criteria clearly before she gets into the details and also explains that she will be:
"…grading against what is possible for sighted users, as well as against the capabilities of other accessible eReading platforms…One further note before we get started. None of the current options would pass my test below with a perfect grade. Several eReading platforms would pass, but no one has all the answers yet."
And in her Conclusion Amy gives the Kindle App a low C grade:
"Amazon has made a good start, but with a grade of…73% (a low C) they still have some serious work to do to come up to the standard of accessibility we hope to see for our students. Do I recommend using it? Yes…mostly…if you aren't doing anything too serious with it, and if the Braille is not going to be a major concern. It's got a pleasure reading grade of 77% a high C, and that would be a fair bit higher if Braille was working properly…"
This article has perhaps the widest scope. It provides a somewhat 'panoramic' overview of the app, with quotes from a variety of people in the 'information access' field, giving the reader a range of perspectives. Topics Nancy Herther, the author, covers include: accessibility issues, education markets, the fact that there is still more to be done, and the state of accessibility today.
The first quote in this post on the Information Today, Inc., News Breaks page is from George Kerscher, Secretary General of the DAISY Consortium, President of the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF), & Senior Officer of Accessible Technology with Learning Ally:
"I think it is good and long overdue…They have more work to do on the iPhone App and then there are the other platforms, which must also be accessible. I hope they are putting a solid team on this to keep it moving forward; I would like see the accessibility features become a point to compete on. I also think that far more than persons who are blind benefit."
If you'd like to download the new release (Version 3.7) of this app, it is available on iTunes.
At the 2013 M-Enabling Summit which will take place on June 6 & 7 in Washington, D.C. topics from sectors including education, senior services, rehabilitation, travel and transportation, gaming, mobile e-commerce and emergency response will be addressed. Leading solutions for physical, visual and speech impairments, hard of hearing, as well as learning and cognitive disabilities will be demonstrated. Participants will learn about mobile applications and services which utilize the latest accessibility innovations embedded in smartphones and tablets are playing a key role in rapidly transforming these sectors.
150 speakers, private sector leaders, application developers, mobile accessibility experts and disability advocates will share their experience. The complete agenda including speakers is available on the Summit website.
[This inquiry was received through the DAISY Contact Us form and was directed to Daniel Weck, a developer with the DAISY Consortium; there are therefore two parts to the response.]
I attended the recent UCL Digital Publishing Forum on Raising Standards with EPUB 3. Firstly, I would like to say how interesting I found all the presentations and how informative they were. Thank you! Would it be possible for you to send me a link to your presentation?
I work in the Design and Production department of Jessica Kingsley Publishers and was wondering whether you could offer a little advice on large print format books and fonts for people with dyslexia.
Do you know how high the demand is for large print books? Have eBooks replaced large print versions or is there still demand for the latter?
Some of our titles are aimed at readers with dyslexia. Are there any particular fonts you would suggest we use for future publications targeted at this audience?
Design and Production
Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd
Luz Rello who is an expert in this field has just written and submitted a paper that analyzes fonts for people with dyslexia (based on the experiments she began in October). Please feel free to contact Ms. Rello directly by email regarding large print and fonts that would be most suitable for people with dyslexia. In April Luz Rello's story was published on the DAISY website. Her 'connection' with dyslexia and some of her related work are outlined in that article.
Please note that although large print itself is not a specific focus of the work of the DAISY Consortium, many DAISY and EPUB 3 reading systems allow the reader to increase the font size as required. DAISY software reading systems also highlight the portion of the text that is being voiced.
[response from Daniel Weck]
Bearing in mind that I am not an expert in this area, I would definitely recommend considering the OpenDyslexic typeface which is free to use, and open-source.
Support for readers with dyslexia (in both print and screen media) also requires particular attention to visual characteristics such as background/foreground colours (high contrast), as well as spacing between letters, words and lines. As EPUB 3 is based on modern web technology (known as HTML 5), such specific presentation rules can be authored using the CSS language (just like regular web pages).
Note that e-book "reading systems" (e.g. grayscale e-readers, or full-colour tablet/computer applications) allow the user to customise how documents get rendered, so that they can pick fonts and sizes that better suit their needs (for example, to switch between day/night reading modes). In other words, presentation styles that are defined inside the content itself (at authoring time) may be overridden by styling rules based upon user preferences (at consumption time).
There is however one notable exception: digital publications that are "fixed layout" (as opposed to "reflowable") are rendered in a pixel-perfect manner, so that readers are limited to zooming in/out of content, with no option to adjust the presentation layout (just as if each page was a bitmap picture). This usually has adverse consequences for accessibility (it may even hinder basic usability), because e-book consumers can read on screens of unpredictable physical dimensions ranging from tiny to large (unlike print media which enforces an optimal page size).
As a rule of thumb, it is recommended to design digital publications that can reflow (adapt) depending on various screen sizes/screen orientations, rather than forcing a specific fixed layout. The vast majority of fixed layout publications are children's books, which can indeed be justified due to the intrinsic relationship between full-page illustrations and the text overlay. For linear text with the occasional interspersed image, note, aside or table, reflowable is a much better option. In other words, "fixed layout" should be the exception, "reflowable" should be the norm.
As for large print, I would suggest trying "normal" e-books using various reading systems (iBooks on iPad and iPhone, Kobo apps on iOS, Android, etc.), to test display options such as margin size, font size, line spacing, text justification, background/foreground colours, etc. This way, you will be able to assess whether you should consider producing your content specifically in large print mode at the design/authoring time, or if indeed user customisations of the reading experience are sufficient.
• The closed-caption recording of the DIAGRAM Webinar "Best Practices for Integrating Images into Accessible Ebooks and DTBs" is available on both the Training Resources area on the DIAGRAM Center website and on YouTube. This webinar was presented by Geoff Freed and Bryan Gould on April 25 (both are with the National Center for Accessible Media – NCAM – at WGBH). More than 100 people joined the webinar to learn what a described image looks like, and sounds like, when integrated into an accessible eBook or DTB. Brief demos of these authoring tools – Tobi, Dolphin EasyProducer, OpenOffice Writer, Word, Adobe Acrobat, Adobe InDesign, and iBooks Author – were given. A link to the PowerPoint slide deck is also provided on the Training Resources area on the DIAGRAM Center website. (The recorded webinar in approximately 80 minutes long.)
• The EASI 4 Part Webinar series "Accessible STEM Made Easier" is being offered at no cost on Tuesday June 4, 11, 18, and 25 at 11:00 Pacific (14:00 Eastern Standard Time). (STEM is the acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.) Speakers include John Gardner and John Taylor (ViewPlus), and Ed Summers, SAS Institute, Inc. Full details and a link to register for this free 4 part webinar are on the EASI website in the list of webinars for June. To get directly to this specific webinar, search on the page at the EASI website link (immediately above) for the word "easier" (no quotes).
• The Multimedia page on the DAISY website lists resources for DAISY books (scroll down to the section "Where Do I get DAISY Books?". The final two sources, Dolphin Computer Access (DRM-free samples) and O'Reilly eBooks have books and/or samples in both DAISY and EPUB format. There are also numerous articles from the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Volume 91, Number 4, in DAISY, EPUB and other formats available for download on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. (Links to download free DAISY and EPUB readers are also provided on the right side of the screen.)
• Hiroshi Kawamura, Immediate Past President of the DAISY Consortium, participated in the panel "Digital Empowerment for All" at the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Regional Development Forum for the Asia-Pacific Region on April 30. From the Panel summary: "This Session, thus, aims to address the pressing issues and challenges related to promoting digital engagement for ALL, including people with special needs who would benefit from increased socio-economic inclusion in the digital society…". Hiroshi's presentation DAISY and EPUB: a New Paradigm of Knowledge Sharing for All - Universal Design in Combination with Assistive Technologies is available on the ITU website.
• "Use Tobi to create EPUB3 talking books" was presented as an EASI Webinar on May 30 by Avneesh Singh (DAISY Consortium Obi/Tobi Project Manager) and Daniel Weck (DAISY Consortium Software Developer). The need for mainstream integration, benefits of EPUB 3, and overview of DAISY Consortium's plan for the future were discussed. A demonstration of EPUB 3 production workflow in Tobi was given. Links to the webinar slides, the recording and additional resources are available on the EASI Webinar Archive for this presentation.
• The Curious Case of Benjamin Button which is a short story written by F. Scott Fitzgerald has been release by Smuuks as a free Audio-eBook in EPUB 3 format. It is open and DRM-free. Information about the original publication, sources for the text and audio, a link to download this new release and information about reading systems for this format are available on the Smuuks website.
• Bookshare has produced its first Google Education on Air Hangout entitled Get Students with Print Disabilities Reading with Chrome and Bookshare. Bookshare Web Reader is featured. This webinar is on YouTube and is approximately 33 minutes long. NOTE: the actual video webinar does not begin until approximately 1 minute, 45 seconds in; prior to that the title screen with no audio are displayed.
• The article Audio books for blind students in The Times of India/Goa is about an approved proposal to have most of the textbooks for Classes IX and X produced in DAISY format for "specially-abled children". "The DAISY format will allow the visually impaired and slow learners to study at their own pace without another person by their side."
• Defining My Dyslexia by Blake Charlton describes the many challenges he has faced as someone with dyslexia. "A more precise definition of dyslexia would clearly identify the disabilities that go along with it, while recognizing the associated abilities as well. If the dyslexic community could popularize such a definition, then newly diagnosed dyslexics would realize that they, like everyone else, will face their futures with a range of strengths and weaknesses."
Obi 2.6.1 maintenance release was made available on May 12. Two issues have been resolved in this maintenance release but the feature set remains the same. Resolved issues:
° Phrase navigation in the content view would get stuck when the same key was pressed continuously and repeatedly.
° When an audio file was imported in the position of the first phrase separator, occasionally Obi would add it at the end of the section.
Even if you have not encountered either or both of these problems, the Obi/Tobi development team recommends that you uninstall the version you have and install the new version (2.6.1) which can be downloaded from the Obi download page on the DAISY website. Additional information is provided in the Obi Forum post about this release.
• The Calligra project is part of the KDE community and is dedicated to producing free software. The second beta release of version 2.7 of the Calligra Suite has been very recently released. This is a 'bugfix' release in preparation for the final release of Calligra 2.7 in June. "Author", the writer's application in the suite, has new support for EPUB 3 – mathematical formulas and multimedia contents are now exported to e-books using the EPUB format. Full details are provided on the Calligra 2.7 Beta Release Announcement.
• Geek School: Learn How to Use Excel Macros to Automate Tedious Tasks provides step by step instructions and clear examples. Also from 'How-to Geek' Everything You Need To Know About the Blue Screen of Death which explains what causes "BSOD", viewing BSOD information, troubleshooting and useful tips.