Presentation: Adding Math to Digital Talking Books
George Kerscher, DAISY Consortium
Dennis Leas, gh, LLC
Neil Soiffer, Design Science, Inc.
DAISY
Vision: All information that is published should be accessible:
 at the same time
 at no greater cost
 in a highly functional featurerich format
Based on open, nonproprietary W3C standards such as SMIL, XHTML and XML.
 1998
 DAISY 2.0
 2001
 DAISY 2.02, the DTB format most commonly used worldwide today
 2002
 ANSI/NISO Z39.86 (DAISY 3, DAISY/NISO), Specifications for the Digital Talking Book
 2005
 Second version of ANSI/NISO Z39.86 released, coined the DAISY/NISO Standard
Exactly What is NIMAS?
It is...
 An application of the DTBook element set of the DAISY/NISO Standard
 XML
 A collection of digital files that provides an accessible representation of the printed book for blind, visually disabled, and printdisabled users
NIMAS is eloquently described on the CAST Web site as follows:
NIMAS guides the production and electronic distribution of digital versions of textbooks and other instructional materials so they can be more easily converted to accessible formats, including Braille and texttospeech.
The key points about NIMAS are:
 accessibility
 limitations & barriers print poses will be eliminated
 flexibility
 different people have different reading needs
 subset of DAISY
 does not provide richness of DAISY, but does at least provide for consistant markup; full DAISY can be requested
 Navigation Center: provides the global navigation mechanisms
 DTBook: XML textual representation of the complete book NIMAS Points to this
 Compressed audio files, such as MP3, that allow up to 40 hours on a single CD
 Images of photos, flow charts, pie graphs, etc
 Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) files to coordinate text, audio, and images
 Resource file: helps reading systems present more information
 Bookmark file: for notes, bookmarks, audio notes, etc
 Package file: packing list of all the files
Math in DAISY
 DAISY/NISO and previous versions allowed only images with alt text
 DAISY/NISO allows for "modular extensions" (think toppings on a pizza)
 The first topping (math) was approved by the DAISY Board February 23, 2007
 Working group was formed in 2005
 MathML chosen because:

 Can be converted to speech
 Can be converted to braille math codes
 Already lots of MathML tools
 First Public Draft: Summer, 2006
 Second Public Draft: December, 2006
 Final approval: February, 2007
 Public announcement: CSUN, 2007
Authoring Math in DAISY
 First extension to DAISY/NISO
 Extension needed to be valid DAISY/NISO
 Needed to decide upon & fallback behavior
 Ultimately decided on two levels: Advanced & Basic
Math and DAISY Players
 Advanced
 Players that directly read the MathML convert it for audio and/or display
 Basic
 Players that rely on supplied audio, alternative text, and/or image for the math
<p> <sent id="cn0004" smilref="nativemathml.smil#tcp0005"> Following this dtbook paragraph is a mathml island.</sent> <sent id="cn0005" smilref="nativemathml.smil#tcp0006"> Presentational markup is used. </sent> </p> <m:math xmlns:dtbook="http://www.daisy.org/z3986/2005/dtbook/" id="math0001" dtbook:smilref="nativemathml.smil#math0001" altimg="nativemathml0001.png" alttext="cube root of x"> <m:mroot> <m:mi>x</m:mi> <m:mn>3</m:mn> </m:mroot> </m:math>
<seq id="math0001" class="mathExt" end="DTBuserEscape;mathpar.end"> <par id="mathpar"> <text src="nativemathml.xml#math0001" type="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" id="mml0001"/> <audio src="nativemathml0001.mp3" id="mathaudio0001" clipBegin="00:00:01.539" clipEnd="00:00:12.082"/> </par> <seq>
Now forget you ever saw this...
 Allow synchronization
 Hook up IDs between DTBook and SMIL files
 Generate all the other files

Producers/Converts
 APH — Book Wizard Producer, Studio Recorder
 Dolphin — Publisher, EaseProducer (Word)
 Phoneticom — Phoneticom DAISY Generator
 Plextalk — Portable Recorder, Recording Studio Pro
 DAISY Pipeline
An updated list of production software can be found at http://www.daisy.org/tools.
 Authoring documents with accessible math using Word/MathType

 Think about the math, not the MathML
 No special work required to make the math accessible
 XHTML is similar to DTBook file
 MathTypemost widely used math editor for Microsoft Word
 WebEQJavabased MathML editor
 Scientific NotebookWYSWYG doc editor with Math support
 Open Officean open source office suite
 MathFlow for ArborTexta MathML editor and converter for ArborText's XML editor
 TtM, TeX4ht, LaTeX2HTMLconversion from TeX/LaTeX to HTML/MathML
 Mathematica, Maple, MathCAD, TI89/92+mathematical computation systems
An updated list of MathML software can be found at www.w3.org/Math/implementations.html
Actually a variety of players, but we can simplify to two species with the following characteristics:

Audio Only  aka "hardware player"
 Typically highly mobile system
 Most common type
 Recorded audio
 More limited navigation
 SMIL file centric

Text Capable  aka "software player"
 Typically desktop system
 Texttospeech capability
 Finegrain, wordlevel navigation
 Extendable to "intelligent reading system"
 DTBook file centric
From the viewpoint of MathML support, we now have three types of players

MathMLunaware  Of course, all current players are MathMLunaware.

Audio Only
 All Current DAISY/NISO 2005 players will play MathMLextended DTBs
 SMIL file is essentially unchanged
 Math rendered via recorded audio

Text capable
 Current players WILL NOT render MathML properly
 MathMLextended DTBs contain new tags in DTBook file
 Current players must be updated to recognize MathMLextended DTBs

Audio Only
 Basic MathML Player
 Advanced MathML Player
All MathMLaware players must recognize the math tag in the DTBook file. However, player support for MathML can vary greatly. We recognize two major categories.

Basic MathML player
 Does not incorporated native understanding of MathML structure and semantics
 Relies on fallbacks to provide an alternate rendering to the user
 Math displayed as static image
 Math read as static text

Advanced MathML player
 Native understanding of MathML structures and semantics
 Able to render and navigate within the MathML content intelligently
 Math image created dynamically
 Reader able to adjust how math is read
 Easy to implement for player manufacturers

Simple for player system
 Doesn't require fast computer
 Doesn't require much memory
 Math image and text produced when book is authored
 Similar in presentation to current players
 Math image is static and cannot be changed by Reader

 Jaggy when zoomed
 Doesn't change colors
 Reader cannot navigate to individual parts of math, since it is one unified image
 Math text is static and cannot be adapted to Reader's preferences
 Many of the same disadvantages we have now

Math image produced when book is played
 Image zooms smoothly
 Image colors properly
 Math text produced when book is played, can be customized to Reader's preferences such as wording and language
 Preserves individual parts of math, permiting finegrain navigation
 Highly adaptable to Reader's preferences, supports "dynamic overview"
 More difficult for player manufacturer to implement
 More processing required by player system

 More processor resources  speed and memory
 Additional software to recognize MathML
 May be more difficult to use for beginning math students
The gh PLAYER is a fullfeatured software DAISY player. Here is a demonstration of the upcoming version 2.2, which incorporates MathML recognition. Note that this is a prebeta version.
 Basic MathML mode  completely implemented
 Advanced MathML mode  partial implementation
The MathML Extension supports a wide range of player behaviors. This provides a choice of price/performance to the Reader.
 As newer players expanded their capabilities, the same MathMLextended DTB provide a richer Reader experience.
 MathMLextended DTBs will retain their value to publishers
 MathMLextended DTBs will retain their value to Readers
MathML for everybody is better, but it is essential for persons with print disabilities. What can you do to bring this about?
 Demand that all legislation require MathML markup in the files used for accessibility.
 Demand that the DSS office makes MathML content available in your books.
 Demand from organizations that provide accessible books to use MathML in their DAISY books.
 Demand support for MathML in authoring tools that you purchase.
 Demand intelligent reading of MathML in the software you purchase.
Build the darn book with true MathML!
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Comments
Another MathML reference
This content is an older presentation. Another format is the article (Word & DAISY format) linked from the MathML project overview (http://www.daisy.org/project/mathml) that could perhaps be moved to DAISYpedia. He (quote) says its copyrighted under Creative Commons "share alike" ... ? Introduction to MathML in DAISY in 10 Small Chapters by Michael Zacherle
Yes, the MathML in DAISY in
Yes, the MathML in DAISY in 10 Small Chapters by Michael Zacherle should be moved to DAISYpedia, its 10 chapters can form different articles. MathML page can then link to DAISYpedia instead of providing a download link. I guess if it can be provided from the MathML area, there is no license issue in publishing it on DAISYpedia which is just another part of the DAISY website.
Title changed and unflagged as Needs Editing
Title changed from "DAISY: Adding Math to Digital Talking Books" to "Presentation: Adding Math to Digital Talking Books". I think this makes it clear that the content was a presentation and could be adapted for further use as updated presentation. Date of 2007 added to Original Author(s) field.